Nathaniel Lucas, Convict Scarborough 1788. He was sent to the Ceres hulk docked at Woolwich on the Thames. Born c. 1764, Kingston, Surrey England. Crime: Steal muslin caps, handkerchiefs, aprons & towels value 52/- . Tried: Old Bailey, 7 July 1784. Sentence: 7 years transportation.
Nathaniel was original sentenced for transportation to America and later changed to Africa in May 1785:
Court Orders of transportation were required from the Privy Council to alter the previously decided destination from America to Africa for the term of 7 years: James Gardner, William Cole, James Jackson, Robert Nunn, Nathaniel Lucas, John Richardson, John Romaine, Edward Jones and Samuel Richardson.
He formed a relationship with Olive Gascoigne, Convict Lady Penrhyn 1788. Born c. 1762 Worcester, England. Crime: Steal with force of arms £13/4/6 in coins. Tried: Worcester, 5 Mar 1785. Sentence: Death commuted to transportation. Other spellings include: GASKINS, GASCOYNE, GASCOIN, GASKING, with her first name also recorded as Olivia, Hollif. Oloff and Olave,
Both Nathaniel and Olive arrived on Norfolk Island, as part of the first landing party on 6 Mar 1788, leaving Port Jackson aboard HM Supply 15 Feb 1788.
In the middle of this month (Feb 1788), Lieutenant King of the Sirius, a master’s mate, and surgeon’s mate, with four other men from the ship, together with a few men and women convicts, embarked on board the Supply armed tender, and she sailed with them for Norfolk Island.
They were cohabiting from 1788 on Norfolk Island. They were one of the many couples married by Reverend Richard Johnson, in Nov 1791 on Norfolk Island.
In Jan 1792 Nathaniel received a land grant of 15 acres at Glenville Valley Sydney, Township of Norfolk Island, being Lot 33; today this land includes a large section of Quality Row, Kingston, including No.9 and No. 10 Quality Row Kingston.
Part of lot 33 today on Norfolk island, photos by Cathy Dunn: Australian History Research
In June 1794 as Olave GASKING, she was recorded as free, married, off stores with two children (Ann, William and Nathaniel) supported by Nathaniel Lucas, settler.
In 1795 Nathaniel Lucas was listed as Settler, on rations. His other land holdings on Norfolk Island include 1796, Lot 52, which is located in the middle of Norfolk Island, original granted to Charles Herritage (arrived Norfolk Island, Supply 1788 leaving Oct 1793), and Nathaniel sold this land to Thomas Crowder, pre 1799. Nathaniel also held a 10 acres lease from Mar 1803. 
In 1798 he was appointed as the Master Carpenter on Norfolk Island. Nathaniel was a carpenter and joiner; he occupied the role of overseer and master carpenter on Norfolk Island. Nathaniel was responsible for building of Windmills at Arthurs Vale, Point Hunter and others on Norfolk Island.
17 Sept 1804: The General Order of the 7th Instant, appointing Nathaniel Lucas, civil of Norfolk Island, a Superintendent of Carpenters on this Establishment appointment is annulled:
GOVERNOR KING TO LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR FOVEAUX THE OFFICER ADMINISTERING THE GOVERNMENT AT NORFOLK ISLAND.
Sir, Sydney, October 1st, 1804.
Nathaniel Lucas, Master Carpenter at Norfolk Island, whom you gave leave to come here (Sydney) on his private affairs returns by the Experiment. As he has signified a Wish to return here by the Investigator on the approaching reduction of the Establishment, I have directed the Commander of the Investigator to receive him and his Family on board the Ship for a passage hither. He has undertaken to bring with him the works for a Wind Mill on account of Government, I request every facility may be given to that Work. He has also my permission to bring some Materials to construct a Wind Mill for himself. As I am informed that some unwarrantable transfers of Ground is in contemplation on the approaching removals, It is to be clearly understood by the Settlers on Norfolk Island, that no Ground will be allowed to any Settler at Port Dalrymple or any of the New Settlements, unless the Settler giving his Allotment up on Norfolk Island goes there himself to reside and proceed to the Cultivation and Improvement of the Grounds that may be so located-The Returns made by you of the Grounds, the respective Settlers hold, will be referred to in this Transaction.
They family left Norfolk Island aboard the Investigator in March 1805 as: Mr. Nathaniel Lucas, formerly superintendent at Norfolk Island, came (as a) passenger in the Investigator; and obtained permission to bring with his other property most of the woodwork for a wind-mill, which will probably be erected at Farm Cove. He brought also several pair of capital mill stones, those of Norfolk being allowed superior in point of durability to any that can be procured here (NSW).
Nathaniel leased town lots in Sydney until he obtained a 500 acre grant at Minto. 3 Jan 1810: Superintendent of Smiths, on list of persons holding civil and military employment at Sydney and settlements adjacent.
Nathaniel died late Apr 1808, His body was found 5 May 1818 in the St George’s river mud at Liverpool, he was buried at St Luke’s Liverpool, NSW.
On Tuesday last the dead body of Mr Nathaniel Lucas, for many years known in this Colony and at Norfolk Island as a respectable builder, was found, left by the tide, at twenty yards distance from Moore Bridge, Liverpool; which unhappy catastrophe appeared to have proceeded from his own act, owing to a mental derangement. He had been six days absent from his family at Liverpool, on a pretext of going to Parramatta; but his long absence, connected with other circumstances that gave rise to apprehension, naturally induced his sons to go in quest of him; the result of which was, that he was by one of his own sons found.
Image: Nathaniel Lucas Headstone, St Lukes Liverpool, courtesy of Anne Kane
After Nathaniel’s death, Olivia travelled to Launceston aboard the John Palmer with six of her children in Sept 1818. Olivia died 12 June 1830, Port Dalrymple region, buried Cypress Street Cemetery Launceston.
 Women off the Stores 16 June 1794 Norfolk Island, AJCP PRO CO/201/10, pp. 199 – 200.
 SRNSW Colonial Secretary’s Papers 1788-1825, Fiche 3267, 9/2731 pp.10-1 and pp.126-7.
 HRA, Series 1, Volume 5, page 221.
 Sydney Gazette, 17 March 1805, p.2.
 SRNSW Colonial Secretary’s Papers 1788-1828, Fiche 3300; 2/8332 p.1.
 Sydney Gazette, 9 May 1818, p. 3.
- Mary and Sarah Lucas, born and died Norfolk Island
- Marriages November 1791 Norfolk Island
- List of Settlers on returns 1795: Norfolk Island
- 1796 Norfolk Island Letter from Nathaniel Lucas
- Norfolk Island first landing party March 1788
- Deaths and Burials Norfolk Island 1788 – 1814